Mineral versus Chemical Sunscreens: Understanding the Difference

Written by: Jean Godfrey-June


Updated on: May 30, 2024


One of the best ways to protect against skin cancer, as well as premature fine lines and wrinkles, sunscreen is a crucial step in any daily skin routine, no matter your skin tone or type. When you choose mineral sunscreen, you sidestep the known and suspected carcinogens, hormone disruptors, and skin irritants that are common in chemical SPF active ingredients. And the tech in mineral sunscreens has improved to such a degree that the best formulas now melt easily into any skin tone.


    Grown Alchemist
    Natural Hydrating Sunscreen SPF 30
    goop, $42SHOP NOW

    Everyday Mineral Face Sunscreen SPF 30
    goop, $47SHOP NOW

    The Outset
    Hydrasheer 100% Mineral Sunscreen
    goop, $44SHOP NOW

The main difference between the two is how they work: Mineral sunscreens (also known as physical sunscreens) form a physical barrier to block and reflect UVA and UVB rays, while chemical sunscreens work by absorbing the UV rays. SPF ratings for both mineral and chemical sunscreens reflect only UVB protection. No chemical sunscreens meet goop’s clean beauty standards, but many mineral sunscreens do.

How to Tell Mineral from Chemical

You can easily tell whether a sunscreen is chemical or mineral: Look in the active ingredient box; if there are any ingredients listed besides zinc oxide or titanium dioxide (or both), it’s chemical and not clean by goop standards. (goop takes its lead from the Environmental Working Group (EWG), which recommends using only mineral sunscreens and avoiding chemical ones completely.)

Do Mineral Sunscreens Leave a White Cast?

Not anymore. Our new favorites melt easily into any skin tone without the whitish cast of previous iterations, and they feel silky and luxurious on all skin types. Some of the ones we’re most excited about are tinted and act almost like makeup, incorporating skin-perfecting tech to smooth the appearance of pores, even tone, and soften the look of blemishes. Others are fortified with skin-care-boosting antioxidants to protect and improve skin further.

  1. Tinted, Sheer, and Glow-Inducing

    RMS Beauty
    SuperNatural Radiance Serum SPF 30
    goop, $48SHOP NOW
  2. Best No-Makeup Makeup (Plus SPF 50)

    Weekend Skin SPF 50 + Vitamin C + Glow
    goop, $50SHOP NOW
  3. Primer and Sunscreen in One

    Saint Jane
    Luxury Sun Ritual Pore Smoothing SPF 30
    goop, $38SHOP NOW
  1. All but Invisible Cream Tint

    Dr. Few Skincare
    Tinted Mineral Sunscreen SPF 30
    goop, $85SHOP NOW
  2. Imperfection-Blurring SPF with a Hint of Sheen

    goop, $38SHOP NOW
  3. Gleamy and Tinted with Antioxidants

    DreamBeam Comfy Smooth Sunscreen SPF 40
    goop, $40SHOP NOW

What about Irritation and Breakouts?

While common chemical sunscreen ingredients are known to irritate skin (octinoxate or octyl methoxycinnamate, homosalate, and octisalate have all been shown to be skin and eye irritants) and may be some of the reason for sunscreen’s breakout-causing reputation, zinc oxide is so calming that it’s the primary ingredient in baby-bottom cream. Look for all-zinc formulas if you have acne-prone or sensitive skin.

  1. Ultimate Skin-Soothing Sunscreen

    KORA Organics
    Silky Sun Drops 100% Mineral Organic Sunscreen Serum SPF 30
    goop, $56SHOP NOW

What Are the Issues with Chemical Sunscreens?

Some of the most common active ingredients in chemical sunscreens—oxybenzone, avobenzone, and homosalate—have been flagged by EWG as hormone disruptors. The organization’s annual sunscreen report cites four separate studies from 2020 that showed that oxybenzone can act as an endocrine disruptor and may increase the risk of breast cancer and endometriosis. A study in JAMA found that four chemical sunscreen ingredients—avobenzone, oxybenzone, octocrylene, and ecamsule—can be absorbed into the bloodstream. This is especially concerning because these chemicals can cause issues even in tiny amounts—there’s no known safe dose at which to use them. In the US, the only active ingredients for sunscreens that are generally recognized as safe and effective are titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, according to a May 2019 FDA proposal to reevaluate the safety of ingredients used in chemical sunscreens.

Chemical sunscreens can also impact the environment. In 2021, Hawaii banned the sale and distribution of sunscreens containing oxybenzone and octinoxate, both shown to damage coral reefs and other marine life.

Formulators Have Gotten (Beautifully) Creative

New ways of encapsulating and blending ingredients have changed the way mineral sunscreens look and feel on your skin. The new ultralight serum formulas are one of our favorite ways to smooth on broad-spectrum sun protection (they sink in like magic), and the gentle but powerful eye cream with SPF 40 that Supergoop came up with is just brilliant.

  1. Dewy Finish

    Algae + Zinc Sea Kale Sunscreen Serum
    goop, $52SHOP NOW
  2. Matte Finish

    Mineral Mattescreen SPF 40
    goop, $38SHOP NOW
  3. Just for Eyes

    Bright-Eyed 100% Mineral Eye Cream SPF 40
    goop, $40SHOP NOW

Mineral Sunscreens for Body Have Changed, Too

The improvements in blendability and texture show up in body products, too—even at SPF 50. (And note that though they’re labeled for body, we love them for face, too.)

  1. Water-Resistant

    Dr. Dennis Gross
    All-Physical Ultimate Defense Sunscreen SPF 50
    goop, $42SHOP NOW
  2. Silky and Moisturizing

    Hydrating Full Coverage Body Lotion SPF 30
    goop, $32SHOP NOW
  3. Nourishing and Soothing

    Saint Jane
    Body Sun Ritual - Hydrating Mineral Sunscreen SPF 30
    goop, $48SHOP NOW

Choose Creams and Lotions for Maximum Safety

EWG has recommended against sprays and powders for a decade because inhaling sunscreen ingredients (even mineral ones) can deliver them deep into the lungs; it is also much harder to get adequate coverage when you use sprays or powders. Aerosols are especially problematic, and the FDA is currently considering banning the entire category. This creamy formula is one of our favorites.

  1. Totally Transparent

    The Mineral Melt SPF 30
    goop, $42SHOP NOW